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Analysis of the Most Complete Stone Mining Technology and Equipment in History _ Mine Full-time Job

Mar 1st, 2023 at 06:35   IT & Telecoms   Saalfeld   13 views Reference: 415
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 According to the requirements of the Technical Specification for Decorative Stone Open-pit Mines, Mining Drilling Equipment , the comprehensive recovery rate of decorative stone mines should not be less than 50%. [Classification of Mining Methods for Stone Mines] I. Mining method: Splitting, blasting, cutting, burning, etc. II. Selection basis of mining method: 1. Geological conditions of the deposit: joint an tension to two walls in the hole under the action of the high-pressure oil, and the rock is broken after being stressed. Borehole blasting method Applicable conditions: for all kinds of rocks with few natural fissures, separate large stones from rock mass by slight blasting Classification of methods: It can be roughly divided into ordinary blasting, conventional controlled blasting and grooved controlled blasting. Advantages: simple operation, high efficiency, strong applicability and low cost Disadvantages: poor squareness, low block rate, reduced stone strength, and many unsafe factors I. Ordinary blasting method 1. Agent: black powder 2. Blasting parameters: Hole diameter: 30 ~ 40 mm Hole spacing: horizontal hole spacing: 1 ~ 1.5m; Vertical pitch: 0.8 ~ 1.2m Hole depth: horizontal hole depth: 45 ~ 60% of separation block width Vertical hole depth: 60 ~ 80% of the height of the separation block Charge: 20 ~ 25% of hole depth Detonation: detonator or electric detonator Note: Measures to prevent excessive concentration of blasting force: Block charge and gun hole should not be packed too tightly II. Controlled blasting 1. Concept: Controlled blasting is a kind of precisely designed blasting with different explosives and ignition methods, which can not only achieve the desired effect, but also control the hazards caused by blasting within the specified allowable range. This kind of blasting with dual control of blasting effect and blasting hazards is called controlled blasting. 2. Agent: Black powder, detonating cord, No.2 rock explosive, blasting tube, metal incendiary agent, static expansion agent (1) Detonating cord: It takes the single substance high explosive RDX or TEK as the core, and its external image is the fuse, slightly thin, and the color is mostly red. The explosive charge of the detonating cord in China is 12 ~ 14 G/m, and the detonation velocity is 6500 ~ 6800 m/s. It can be detonated by fire detonator or electric detonator, and the hole spacing is 20 ~ 40. The internal drilling medium for placing the detonating cord can be air or water. Mining site by detonating cord controlled blasting (2) Metal incendiary agent (high-energy incendiary agent): The metal oxidant reacts with the metal reducing agent to generate high-temperature expansion gas, and the rock is cracked under the combined action of the expansion pressure and the thermal effect. Such as: 2Al + 3MnO2 = Al2O3 + 3Mn + 221 kcal (or + 9.52 × 105 J) Commonly used oxidants: MnO2, CuO, Fe3O3 … Commonly used reducing agents: Al, Mg, Fe + Mg … (3) Static expansion agent: Calcium oxide, inorganic salt and organic additives, and the tension generated by the volume expansion of the reaction after adding water. Such as: CaO + H2O-Ca (OH) 2 + 15.5 kcal, with volume expansion of 3 times, the expansion stress is about 30 ~ 50Mpa (the tensile strength of rock is about 5 ~ 12MPa). Mechanical cutting method Concept: Separation of rock blocks or blocks directly from the rock mass with the aid of mechanical equipment in accordance with the required block specification The invention has the advantages of no damage to the ore body and the block, flat cutting surface, no need of shaping, high block rate, large block size, low labor intensity and high production efficiency. Advanced technology, technology and equipment. Common equipment: rock drill, steel cable stone sawing machine, diamond wire saw, chain saw, disc saw. 1. Steel cable stone sawing machine sawing method It appeared at the end of the 19th century and was used for marble mining with quartz sand as raw material. It was discontinued at the end of the 20th century. II. Diamond wire saw cutting method 1. Equipment composition: (1) Driving device (2) Diamond rope (3) Working column and guide wheel The steel wire rope is sealed by spring, injection molding, rubber injection, etc. Fixed diamond bead 2. Working methods: (1) Ring traction cutting method When the ore body has two or more free surfaces, a horizontal hole and a vertical hole are drilled along the designed sawing surface, so that the two holes are connected and on the same cutting surface. (2) Rope pressing and cutting method When the number of the free surfaces of the ore body is less than two, a hole is drilled on the working face of the bench, a rope pressing wheel is arranged on a multi-purpose drilling machine or a cutting upright post and is placed in the hole, and a carborundum rope bypasses the rope pressing wheel and forms a closed loop with a driving wheel of a sawing machine to work. Diamond wire saw traction cutting Diamond wire saw traction cutting 3. Applicable conditions of diamond wire saw It can be used for full sawing and mining of marble and granite or combined mining with other equipment; it can also be used for stone processing and block shaping. 4. Advantages and disadvantages The mining cost is high, but the sawing surface is flat, the sawing area is large, and the block rate is high 4. Sawing method of arm-type stone sawing machine According to the cutting tool, it is divided into: 1) fixedly instal a hard alloy or diamond segment cutting edge on a cutting arm transmission chain to form a hard alloy cut chain or a diamond cutting chain; 2) Polyurethane injection molded cutting tape with diamond cutting segments. The main body of the diamond cutting belt is a rectangular diamond segment threaded on six side-by-side stainless steel wire ropes for aviation, and the segments are all sealed by special polyurethane injection molding. BENETTI, Italy JB-990 mining band saw vertical cutting operation The vertical and horizontal cutting of the ore body can be carried out, and the vertical and horizontal cutting positions can be quickly and flexibly switched at the same installation position. It is suitable for the mining of soft stones such as marble, limestone and travertine with medium hardness. At present, the maximum vertical cutting depth of large chain arm saw can reach 8 meters, the longest horizontal cutting depth can reach 4.8 meters, and the chain width is generally 33.5 mm. The maximum cutting depth of the mining band saw can reach 4.8 meters, and the width of the saw gap is generally 38 mm. At present, the maximum vertical cutting depth of the arm saw has reached 8 m, and the mining bench with a height of 8 m can be mined. 5. Disc stone sawing machine sawing method A saw blade with a diameter of 4.2 m can be mined to a height of 1.9 m, and the main machine of the circular saw and the saw blade are moved during mining. The diameter of the saw blade used for mining circular saw blade is 1600 4200 mm, and it is usually used in groups of 2 or 3 pieces. If the cutting depth is 1.25 m, the combination of saw blades with diameters of 1.6m, 2.2m and 2.8m can be used; if the cutting depth is 1.9 m, the combination of saw blades with diameters of 2.2m, 3m and 4.2m can be used. The final width of the kerf is 15-20 mm. Photo of vertical sawing by double-blade mining circular saw with a diameter of 3.5m Flame rock cutter cutting method I. Cutting mechanism: Use the flame of the flame thrower to burn the rock to form a cutting surface to divide the rock. It can only be cut vertically. The loss of the cutting groove is large. In the case of three free surfaces, two surfaces are generally cut at most. It is better to cut only one surface, and the other two surfaces are separated by blasting or wedge method. Due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients of different minerals in the rock, quartz changes from α-quartz to β-quartz at 573 , and the volume of quartz decreases, resulting in disintegration. II. Applicable conditions: Vertical cutting of rocks with high quartz content, not horizontal cutting. The higher the quartz content is, the higher the cutting efficiency is; the lower the quartz content is, the lower the cutting efficiency is. III. Equipment composition: Air compressor, oil supply system, oxygen supply system, flame thrower Operation Drawing of Downward Trench Excavation by Flame Cutting Machine IV. Advantages and disadvantages: High efficiency (1.5 ~ 2.5 /H), flexibility, large cutting depth (up to 10 m), large cutting area, smooth cutting surface, not affected by season and climate. High noise (100 ~ 120 db), high dust, high fuel consumption, high cost (200 ~ 250 yuan/) and high labor intensity, so it must be combined with other mining methods. Flame cutting machine combined with hand-held rock drill,dth hammer bit, drilling row holes combined with splitting mining method (referred to as burning rock drilling mining method) is the traditional, longest and most widely used granite mining method. Copyright notice If it involves copyright issues, please contact us to delete it! Return to Sohu to see more Responsible Editor:. wt-dthtools.com

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Analysis of the Most Complete Stone Mining Technology and Equipment in History _ Mine